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Section A: Education

Answer either Question 1 or Question 2.

1 (a) Explain how the rich and powerful are able to control what is defined as educational knowledge. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. An attempt to define what is meant by educational knowledge, with no further development, would be worth up to 2 marks. A few simple points about how the rich and powerful are able to control what is defined as educational knowledge in a society would fit the upper part of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound account of one or two ways in which the rich and powerful are able to control what is defined as educational knowledge would be worth up to 7 marks. To go higher, the accounts would have to be more detailed and/or cover a wider range of points.

(b) ‘Ethnicity has little influence on educational achievement.’ Assess this claim. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few observations about ethnicity, with no links to educational achievement, would be worth up to 3 marks. An account of factors influencing educational achievement, with little or no direct reference to ethnicity, would fit the higher part of the band.

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of the relationship between ethnicity and educational achievement. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A few accurate but underdeveloped points about how ethnicity may influence educational achievement would be worth up to 9 marks. To go higher, the explanations offered will be more detailed and/or a wider range of relevant points will be covered.

There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of the relationship between ethnicity and educational achievement. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band, the assessment is likely to be based on juxtaposition of different accounts of the factors that influence educational achievement, including reference to ethnicity. To go higher, the assessment must be directly focused on the claim that ethnicity has little influence on educational achievement.

Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

2 (a) Explain the Marxist idea that there is correspondence between the way schools are organised and the workplace. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few points about the way schools are organised, without reference to the capitalist workplace, would be worth up to 2 marks. A simple account of one or two ways in which there may be a correspondence between schools and the capitalist workplace, would trigger the higher part of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound account of possible links between the way schools are organised and the capitalist workplace would be worth up to 7 marks. To go higher, the account must be more detailed and/or cover a wider range of points. The work of Bowles and Gintis may feature, though this is not essential to gain high marks。

(b) ‘Social class rather than gender is the main influence on pupil attitudes to education.’ Assess this view. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few observations about pupil attitudes to education, with no further links to the question, would be worth up to 3 marks. A few simple points about how social class may affect educational outcomes, with no particular reference to pupil attitudes, would fit the higher part of the band.

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of how social class may influence pupil attitudes to education. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. An accurate but underdeveloped account of two or three ways in which social class may impact on pupil attitudes to education would be worth up to 9 marks. To go higher, the account must cover a wider range of points and/or include some consideration of how both class and gender influence pupil attitudes.

There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of how social class may influence pupil attitudes to education. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band the assessment may be confined to a juxtaposition of points about the respective influences of class and gender on pupil attitudes. To go higher, the answer will include an explicit assessment of the idea that social class rather than gender is the main influence on pupil attitudes.

Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

Section B: Global Development

Answer either Question 3 or Question 4.

3 (a) Explain the main factors influencing the birth rate in developing countries. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. An attempt to define the term ‘birth rate’, with no further development, would be worth up to 2 marks. A simple account of a few factors that influence the birth rate in developing countries would trigger the top half of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound account of two or three factors influencing the birth rate in developing countries would be worth up to 7 marks. To go higher, the explanations offered will be more detailed and/or cover a wider range of points.

(b)Assess the extent to which education programmes help to improve the health of people in developing countries. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. Some general observations about health issues affecting populations in developing countries, would be worth up to 3 marks. A few points about the nature of health education programmes in developing countries, with no further links to the question, would be fit the top half of the band.

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of how education programmes help to improve the health of people in developing countries.There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. An accurate but underdeveloped account of two or three ways in which education programmes may be used to address health issues in developing countries would be worth up to 9 marks. To go higher, the account will be more detailed and/or cover a wider range of points.

There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of how education programmes help to improve the health of people in developing countries. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band, the assessment may be delivered through juxtaposition of different perspectives on how to improve health in developing countries, including reference to education programmes. To go higher, there must be an explicit analysis of the extent to which education programmes specifically can help to improve the health of people in developing countries.

Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

4 (a) Explain why western models of development may be inappropriate for many developing countries. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A basic attempt to explain what is meant by development would be worth up to 2 marks. A few observations about western models of development, with no further links to the question, would fit the higher part of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound account of one or two reasons why western models of development may be inappropriate for many developing countries would be worth up to 7 marks. To go higher, the account must be more detailed and/or cover a wider range of explanations.

(b) ‘Corruption among elite groups is the main obstacle to development in many countries.’ Assess this view. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few observations about the nature of corruption in developing countries would be worth up to 3 marks. A simple account of one or two ways in which elite groups may be involved in corruption in developing countries would fit the higher part of the band. [7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of how corruption among elite groups may impact on development. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. An accurate but underdeveloped account of two or three ways in which corruption among elite groups may be an obstacle to development would be worth up to 9 marks. To go higher, the explanations offered must be more detailed and/or cover a wider range of points. There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present. [12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of how corruption among elite groups may impact on development. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band, the assessment may rely on juxtaposition of different views about obstacles to development, including references to elite corruption. To go higher, the assessment will provide an explicit analysis of whether corruption among elite groups is the main obstacle to development in many countries. Answers at this level must achieve three things: – First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding. Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question. Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

Section C: Media

Answer either Question 5 or Question 6.

5 (a) Explain the role of the media in creating folk devils. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few general observations about the role of the media, with no particular reference to the creation of folk devils, would be worth up to 2 marks. An attempt to define what is meant by folk devils, with no further development, would trigger the higher part of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound account of how the media help to create folk devils would be worth up to 7 marks. To go higher, the account will be more developed; for example, points will be supported by references to relevant studies, such as Cohen’s work, and may include examples of where the media has created folk devils.

(b) ‘The internet has weakened the power of the traditional media.’ Assess this claim. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few observations about the power of the media, with no particular reference to the internet, would be worth up to 3 marks. A simple account of one or two ways in which the internet has impacted on the traditional media would fit the higher part of the band.

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of how the internet may have impacted on the traditional media. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. An accurate but underdeveloped account of two or three ways in which the internet may have undermined the power of the traditional media would be worth up to 9 marks. To go higher, the account offered will be more detailed and/or cover a wider range of points. There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of how the internet may have impacted on the traditional media. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band, the assessment may be limited to a few basic points for or against the idea that the internet has undermined the power of the traditional media. To go higher, the analysis will be more sustained and highlight some of the nuances in the debate about the extent to which the internet has undermined the power of the traditional media.

Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

6 (a) Explain how young people may be stereotyped by the media. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. An attempt to explain what is meant by stereotyping, with no further development in relation to the question, would be worth up to 2 marks. A simple account of one or two ways in which the media may create stereotypes of particular groups (not necessarily focused on young people), would fit the higher part of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound account of one or two ways in which the media may create stereotypes of young people would be worth up to 7 marks. To go higher, the account will be more detailed and/or cover a wider range of points.

(b) Assess the hypodermic syringe model of media influence. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few observations about media influence, with no clear links to the hypodermic syringe model, would be worth up to 3 marks. A simple attempt to explain the hypodermic syringe model, with no further links to the question, would fit the higher part of the band.

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of the hypodermic syringe model of media influence. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. An accurate but underdeveloped account of how the hypodermic syringe model has been used to explain media influence would be worth up to 9 marks. To go higher, the account will include reference to one or more other models of media influence.

There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of the hypodermic syringe model of media influence. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band, the assessment may be based on contrasts between the hypodermic syringe model and other theories of media influence, such as the uses and gratification model and the cultural effects theory. To go higher, there will be an explicit analysis of the value of the hypodermic syringe model in explaining media influence. Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

Section D: Religion

Answer either Question 7 or Question 8.

7 (a) Explain how religion can bring about social change. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few general observations about the role of religion in society, with no clear reference to social change, would be worth up to 2 marks. A simple account of how religion can bring about social change would fit the higher part of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound account of how religion can bring about social change would be worth up to 7 marks. To go higher, the account would need to be more detailed, with good use of references to relevant thinkers and concepts.

(b) ‘The growth of new religious movements is a response to the decline in traditional religion.’ Assess this view. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few observations about the nature of traditional religious authority (churches, for example), would be worth up to 3 marks. An explanation of what is meant by new religious movements, with no further development, would fit the higher part of the band.

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of how the decline in traditional religious authority may have contributed to the growth of new religious movements. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. An accurate but underdeveloped account of one or two reasons why the decline in traditional religious authority might have led to the growth of new religious movements would fit the lower part of the band. To go higher, the account must be more detailed and/or cover a wider range of points about the possible links between the growth of new religious movements and the decline in traditional religious authority.

There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of how the decline in traditional religious authority may have contributed to the growth of new religious movements. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band, the assessment may be based on a simple juxtaposition of different explanations for the growth of new religious movements, including the idea that the growth is linked to the decline in traditional religious authority. Higher in the band, there will be an explicit analysis of the extent to which the growth of new religious movements can be explained in terms of the decline in traditional religious authority.

Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

8 (a)Explain how religious rituals contribute to social solidarity. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. An attempt to explain what is meant by social solidarity, with no other links to the question, would be worth up to 2 marks. A simple account of one or two ways in which religious rituals contribute to social solidarity would trigger the top part of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound account of two or three ways in which religious rituals contribute to social solidarity would be worth up to 7 marks. To go higher, the explanations offered would have to be more detailed and/or there would be coverage of a wider range of points about the links between religious rituals and social solidarity.

(b) ‘Religion serves the interests of the rich and powerful.’ Assess this view. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few observations about the role of religion in general, with no particular reference to the interests of the rich and powerful, would be worth up to 3 marks. A simple account of one or two ways in which religion may serve the interests of the rich and powerful would trigger the top half of the band.

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of how religion may serve the interests of the rich and powerful. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. An accurate but underdeveloped account of two or three ways in which religion may serve the interests of the rich and powerful would be worth up to 9 marks. To go higher, the account will be more detailed (for example, perhaps showing a good grasp of the Marxist theory of religion) and/or cover a wider range of relevant points.

There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of how religion may serve the interests of the rich and powerful. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band, the assessment is likely to be based on a juxtaposition of different theories of religion, including the Marxist theory. To go higher, answers will include an explicit assessment of whether religion serves the interests of the rich and powerful.

Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

Useful information (Hints)

Question 1(a)

Question 1(b)

 

Question 2(a)

 

Question 2(b)

 

Question 3(a)

 

Question 3(b)

 

Question 4(a)

 

Question 4(b)

 

Question 5(a)

Question 5(b)

 

Question 6(a)

 

Question 6(b)

 

Question 7(a)

 

Question 7(b)

 

Question 8(a)

 
Question 8(b)
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