FANDOM


Back to Past papers

Section A: Education

Answer either Question 1 or Question 2.

1 (a) Explain the functionalist theory of the relationship between education and the economy? [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few general observations about the functionalist theory of education, with no direct links to the economy, would fit the lower part of the band. A basic attempt to explain some possible links between education and the economy, with no reference to the functionalist theory, could also gain up to 2 marks. An answer that demonstrates a simple understanding of the functionalist theory of the relationship between education and the economy would fit the higher part of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound account of the functionalist theory of education, with some links to the economy would be worth up to 7 marks. To go higher, the specific links that functionalists draw between education and the economy must be explained more fully. This might include reference to the meritocracy thesis (for example, through the work of Davis and Moore) and/or the ideas of system integration and functional prerequisites with reference to the demands of the economy.

(b) ‘There is no evidence that educational achievement levels are the result of differences in intelligence.’ Assess this view. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few points about the influences on educational achievement generally, with no reference to differences in intelligence, would be worth up to 3 marks. To go higher within the band there must be some attempt to consider the influence of intelligence on educational achievement, though the discussion at this level will be simple and show only a rudimentary understanding of the relevant issues.

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of debates about the role of intelligence in influencing educational achievement. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. An accurate but underdeveloped account of how intelligence might influence educational achievement would be worth up to 9 marks. To go higher there must be some consideration of the evidence for and/or against the view that differences in intelligence influence educational achievement. However, within this band there is no requirement for any assessment of the view on which the question is based. Sociological accounts of the strengths and/or limitations of IQ tests could form part of a sound response to this question.

There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of debates about the role of intelligence in influencing educational achievement. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based.

Lower in the band the assessment may be based on a juxtaposition of different explanations of educational achievement, including those that rely on the influence of intelligence as a key factor. Higher in the band the assessment will be more explicit and may include a critical analysis of the idea that evidence exists, or can be collected, that supports the notion that intelligence is a key variable influencing educational achievement. Use of references to relevant studies and/or thinkers might be another feature of high quality answers.

Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

2 (a) Explain how educational achievement may be affected by material deprivation. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few general points about educational achievement, with no links to material deprivation, would be worth up to 2 marks. An attempt to define ‘material deprivation, with no further development, would also fit the lower part of the band. A few simple points about how educational achievement might be affected by low income/poverty, would fit the higher part of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. Lower in the band, answers will accurately identify ways in which material deprivation can affect educational achievement. Higher in the band, the range of relevant points covered will be greater and/or there will be better use of concepts and references to thinkers/studies.

(b) ‘Interaction between teachers and pupils is the main factor explaining differences in educational achievement between males and females.’ Assess this view. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few observations about differences in educational achievement, with no references to gender, would fit the lower part of the band. Likewise, some points about classroom interaction, with no other links to the question, would also be worth up to 3 marks. A few simple examples of how interaction between teachers and pupils might influence educational achievement would trigger the upper part of the band. Alternatively, a few general observations about factors affecting the educational achievement of males and females, with no reference to teacher and pupil interaction, would be worth up to 6 marks.

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of debates about the role of teacher and pupil interaction in influencing educational achievement. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. Lower in the band, answers may focus more on classroom interaction and its effect on educational achievement generally. To reach the top part of the band, however, the discussion of teacher and pupil interaction must be clearly linked to issues of gender divisions in educational achievement.

There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of debates about the role of teacher and pupil interaction in influencing the educational achievement of males and females. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band, the assessment may be based on a simple juxtaposition of different factors that may influence the educational achievement of males and females. Higher in the band, the assessment will be more explicit and may include an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of relevant interactionist accounts gender divisions in educational achievement. Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

Section B: Global Development

Answer either Question 3 or Question 4.

3 (a) Explain three ways of defining ‘development’. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few general observations about the process of development, with only loose links to issues of defining ‘development’, would fit the lower part of the band. A simple attempt to define ‘development’, possibly including some omissions or inaccuracy, could score up to 4 marks.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound account of two ways of defining development would fit the lower part of the band. To go higher, three ways of defining ‘development’ must be explained in reasonable detail. This could include three different economic definitions of development, though a good answer could equally be based on contrasts between economic and non-economic (social, cultural, environmental) definitions.

(b)‘Rich countries prevent other countries from achieving economic development.’ Assess this claim. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few simple points about economic development, with no other links to the question, would be worth up to 3 marks. One or two simple observations about the impact of rich nations on the economies of other countries, would fit the higher part of the band.

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of debates about the impact of rich countries on the economic development of other countries. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. An accurate but underdeveloped account of how rich countries may impede the economic development of other countries, covering only a narrow range of points/theories, would fit the lower part of the band. To go higher, the account must be more theoretical and/or cover a wider range of relevant points.

There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of debates about the impact of rich countries on the economic development of other countries. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band, the assessment may be confined to a juxtaposition of different theories of development, such as the world systems view and modernisation theory. Higher in the band, the assessment will be more explicit and there will be a direct analysis of the extent to which it is reasonable to claim that rich countries impede the economic development of other countries.

Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

4 (a) Explain why many aid programmes are unsuccessful. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. Answers that are confined to an attempt to define ‘aid’, or to describe different types of aid, would fit the lower part of the band. A simple account of one or two reasons why many aid programmes are unsuccessful would trigger the higher part of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound account of up to three reasons why aid programmes may fail, would fit the lower part of the band. To go higher, the range of reasons offered would be wider and/or the explanations given would be more detailed.

(b) ‘Over-population is the main cause of poverty in developing countries.’ Assess this view. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few points about over-population, with no reference to the causes of poverty, would be worth up to 3 marks. An attempt to explain the causes of poverty, with little or no reference to over-population, would fit the upper part of the band.

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of debates about over-population and links to the causes of poverty. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. An accurate but underdeveloped account of one or two ways in which over-population may lead to poverty, would fit the lower part of the band. To go higher, the discussion of the possible links between over-population and poverty would be more developed and is likely to include sustained references to appropriate theories and sociological arguments. There may be little or no attempt at assessment at this level.

There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of debates about the role of intelligence in influencing educational achievement. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band, the assessment may be limited to a juxtaposition of different explanations of poverty, including those explanations that refer directly to the impact of over-population. Higher in the band, the assessment will be more direct and provide a sustained analysis of how far over-population is a factor in the poverty experienced in many developing countries.

Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

Section C: Media

Answer either Question 5 or Question 6.

5 (a) Explain how the media help shape the social identities of young people. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few simple points about the role of the media in general, with no links to young people, would be worth up to 2 marks. A simple account of one or two ways in which the media may shape the social identities of young people would fit the higher part of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound account of two or three ways in which the media may shape the social identities of young people would be worth up to 7 marks. To go higher, the explanations offered will be more detailed and/or cover a wider range of points.

(b) ‘Watching violent films has little impact on human behaviour.’ Assess this view. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few general points about how human behaviour may be influenced by the media, with no reference to watching violent films, would be worth up to 3 marks. A simple account of how watching violent films might influence behaviour, lacking development and sociological insight, could gain up to 6 marks.

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of debates about the role of violent films in influencing human behaviour. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question Lower in the band, answers may be limited to an accurate but underdeveloped account of how, or why, watching violent films might influence human behaviour. Better answers within this band will include references to relevant studies and/or theories of media influence. There may be little or no attempt at assessment at this level.

There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of debates about the role of violent films in influencing human behaviour. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band, the assessment may be limited to the juxtaposition of different studies and/or theories on the role of the media in influencing behavior. To go higher, there must also be some explicit assessment of the claim that watching violent films has little impact on human behavior.

Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

6 (a) Explain the concept of hegemony in relation to the media. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few general points about the media, with no direct reference to hegemony, would be worth up to 2 marks. A simple attempt to explain what is meant by hegemony would fit the higher part of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound account of what is meant by hegemony in relation to the media would be worth up to 7 marks. To go higher, the account will need to be more developed; for example, through references to relevant studies of the media that have used the concept of hegemony, or by noting some nuances in the way different thinkers use the concept of hegemony.

(b) ‘Owners have complete control over media content.’ Assess this view. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few general points about media content, with no reference to the power of owners, would be worth up to 3 marks. One or two simple points about the power of owners in relation to the media would fit the higher part of the band.

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of debates about the power of owners to control media content. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. An accurate but underdeveloped account of two or three ways in which owners may exercise control over media content, would be worth up to 9 marks. To go higher, the discussion must cover a wider range of points and/or provide more detailed explanations.

There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of debates about the power of owners to control media content. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band, the assessment may be delivered through juxtaposition of different accounts of who has the power to shape media content. To go higher, the assessment will include an explicit analysis of the claim that owners have complete control over media content.

Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

Section D: Religion

Answer either Question 7 or Question 8.

7 (a) Explain the features of two types of sect. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A simple attempt to define what is meant by a sect would be worth up to 2 marks. A few simple points about one or two types of sect would trigger the top half of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound attempt to distinguish two different types of sect would be worth up to 7 marks. To go higher, the explanations offered will be more detailed and/or a broader range of sects will be discussed.

(b) Assess feminist explanations of gender inequality in religion. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few simple points about feminist theory, with no clear links to religion, would be worth up to 3 marks. A few observations about gender inequality in religion, with little or no reference to feminist theory, would fit the higher part of the band。

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of feminist explanations of gender inequality in religion. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. An accurate but underdeveloped account of one feminist explanation of gender inequality in religion would be worth up to 9 marks. To go higher, the account of one feminist explanation will be more sophisticated, perhaps including detailed references to theory and/or studies, or else a wider range of explanations will be offered.

There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of feminist explanations of gender inequality in religion. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band, the assessment may rely on juxtaposition of different sociological accounts of the position of women in religion. To go higher, the assessment will include some explicit analysis of the strengths and limitations of feminist explanations of gender inequality in religion.

Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

8 (a)Explain the difficulties that sociologists face in measuring religious belief. [9]

[0–4] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few observations about the nature of religious beliefs, with no clear links to the issue of measurement, would be worth up to 2 marks. A simple account of one or two difficulties in measuring religious belief would trigger the top half of the band.

[5–9] At this level, there will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. A sound account of two or three difficulties in measuring religious belief would be worth up to 7 marks. To go higher, a wider range of difficulties will be addressed.

(b) ‘Religious thinking has little influence in society today.’ Assess this view. [16]

[0–6] At this level, there may be little or no reference to relevant sociological sources. Answers may rely on general knowledge and/or personal observation. Explanations will be brief and cover only a narrow range of relevant points. A few observations about the nature of religious thinking, with no clear links to how religion may influence society today, would be worth up to 3 marks. A few simple points about the influence of religion today would trigger the top half of the band.

[7–11] Answers at this level will provide a sound account of the influence that religious thinking has in society today. There will be some use of relevant sociological sources, such as concepts, theories and explanations. Answers will cover a range of points and show a sound understanding of the issues raised by the question. An accurate but underdeveloped account of one or two relevant points about the influence of religion in society today would be worth up to 7 marks. To go higher, the account offered must be more detailed and/or a wider range of relevant points will be covered.

There is no requirement for assessment at this level although it may be present.

[12–16] Answers that fit this band will demonstrate a good understanding of debates about the influence of religion today. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based. Lower in the band, the assessment is likely to be based on a juxtaposition of different points for and against the idea that religion has little influence in society today. To go higher, there must be some explicit analysis of the strengths and/or limitations of the view that religion has little influence today.

Answers at this level must achieve three things: –

First, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding.

Second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question.

Third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

Useful information (Hints)

Question 1(a)

Question 1(b)

 

Question 2(a)

 

Question 2(b)

 

Question 3(a)

 

Question 3(b)

 

Question 4(a)

 

Question 4(b)

 

Question 5(a)

Question 5(b)

 

Question 6(a)

 

Question 6(b)

 

Question 7(a)

 

Question 7(b)

 

Question 8(a)

 
Question 8(b)
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.